Πέμπτη, 13 Ιουνίου 2013

Königreiche des antiken Griechenland: Mazedonien / Makedonien.Kingdoms of ancient Greece : Macedonia / Macedon

European Kingdoms

Ancient Greece


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(History-of-Macedonia)


Macedonia / Macedon
The Macedonians were of Hellenic stock, claiming legendary descent from the Dorians who conquered Sparta and much of Greece towards the end of the Mycenaean period. Their name is generally thought to mean 'highlander', which would be entirely appropriate for their mountainous homeland. They probably arrived in the northernmost parts of Greece on the tail-end of the Dorian influx during the ninth century BC, coming in from the west and driving the Thracians out of Mygdonia in the process.
Neighbouring the friendly Hellenic kingdom of Epirus on their western border, The Macedonians also had Paeonia to the north, Thrace to the east, and Thessaly to the south. Like the Thracians, with whom they had many cultural similarities, they were an aggressive people, perfectly suited to the more mountainous land in which they settled. While they later become more Hellenised from the fourth century, the more southerly Greeks regarded them as being rough and ready, still semi-barbarians.
Temenus
Legendary son of Aristomachus of Sparta. King of Argos.
c.770 BC
Greek myth paints Caranus as the son of Temenus, king of Argos, who in turn is the son of Aristomachus, the Dorian conqueror of Laconia (although given dating discrepancies between Caranus and Aristomachus, it is more likely that he claims descent from the latter rather than being his actual son).

Aigai
The ruins of Aigai (Aegae, modern Vergina), which was originally an Illyrian base
According to the Chronicon by Eusebius, Caranus takes his followers north to aid the king of the Orestae, who is at war with his neighbours, the Eordaei. The Orestae (possibly an Epirote tribe) occupy a location in central northern Greece, immediately north-west of Mount Olympus and west of the Eordaei.
The king promises Caranus half his territory in return for his successful aid. The Orestae are indeed successful and the king keeps his promise. Caranus takes possession of the territory, founding the very beginnings of the Macedonian kingdom and reigning for thirty years, eventually dying of old age. He is succeeded by his son. The Macedonians appear to enjoy close and friendly relations with the Epirotes from the very beginning, which supports the idea that the Orestae themselves are Epirotes.
c.770 - 740 BC
Caranus / Karanus
Son. Macedonian tribal king. Reigned 30 years
c.740 - 729 BC
Comus / Koinos / Coenus
Son. Macedonian tribal king. Reigned 12 years.
c.728 - 700 BC
Tyrmas / Tyrimmas
Son. Macedonian tribal king. Reigned 28 years.
Argead Kings of Macedonia
c.700 - 305 BC
A Macedonian kingdom only emerged around the end of the eighth century under the Argead line of kings. According to legend, they migrated into the region from Argos under Caranus, hence Argead ('of Argos'). Once there they helped the king of the tribal Orestae to defeat a neighbouring tribe and were given half the king's territory in thanks. This must have been the eastern half, and three or four generations later, either Perdiccas or Argaeus established a capital at Aigai (or Aegae, modern Vergina, near Veria), east of both the former Orestae and their neighbours, the Eordaei, and close to the northernmost point of the Aegean Sea. The region was in a fertile plain in Lower Macedonia which was irrigated by two rivers, the Axius and the Haliacmon. Under Alexander I the kingdom expanded rapidly and, until the fourth century, occupied an area approximately the same as the modern Greek province of Macedonia.
c.700 - 678 BC
Perdiccas I
First historical king according to Herodotus.
678 - 640 BC
Argaeus I
Son. Founder of the Argeads. Faced Galaurus' Illyrian invasion.
640 - 602 BC
Philip I
Son.
602 BC
The Illyrian invasions which had begun during the reign of his father continue during Philip's reign. He resists successive attempts to invade his small kingdom but is eventually killed by them in battle. His infant son inherits the kingship.
602 - 576 BC
Aeropus I
Son. Infant at accession.
602 - 601 BC
The Macedonians are dispirited by the continual Illyrian attacks against them, which have lately been joined byThracian attacks. Believing that the presence of their king will strengthen then, the Macedonian army carries the infant Aeropus into battle. The attempt works, and the Illyrians and Thracians are finally driven from the region. The king reigns in apparent peace thereafter.
576 - 547 BC
Alcetas I
Son.
547 - 498 BC
Amyntas I
Son. A Persian vassal for much of his reign.
542 BC
There is a period of Persian overlordship, although Amyntas is still able to enter into an alliance with Hippias, tyrant of Athens. Macedonia remains a vassal until it manages to break free under the rule of Alexander I.
513 -512 BC
Neighbouring Thrace south of the Danube is conquered by the Persians and is held for about fifty years.
498 - 454 BC
Alexander I
Son. Built up the kingdom from its tribal origins.
490 BC
In response to the Athenian support of revolts by Salamis and the Ionians, Darius I invades mainland Greece, subduing the Thracian tribes along the way (all except the Satrai, precursors to the Bessoi). Athens is sacked, but only after its citizens withdraw safely, and subsequently the invaders are defeated by Athens and Plataea at the Battle of Marathon in August or September of the year.
Alexander I silver stater
A silver stater (or tetrobol) issued by Alexander I between 476-454 BC
480 - 479 BC
FeatureInvading southern Greece in 480 BC, the Persians are swiftly engaged by Athens and Sparta in the Vale of Tempe, and then stymied by a mixed force of Greeks led by Sparta at Thermopylae. While Macedonia is a Persian vassal, it still supplies the Greek city states with supplies and information regarding Persian movements.
Athens, as the leader of the coalition of city states known as the Delian League, then defeats the Persian navy atSalamis, and after the Persian king Xerxes returns home, his army is decisively defeated at the Battle of Plataea and kicked out of Greece, with many of the survivors of Plataea being killed by Alexander's forces as they retreat to Asia Minor by land. This defeat also allows the Macedonians to fully regain a freedom that they may have established in 490 BC.
c.479 - 454 BC
During his reign, Alexander I leads the expansion of the kingdom's territory into Upper Macedonia, conquering independent Macedonian tribes such as the Elmiotae (immediately south-west of Aigai) and the Lyncestae (to the north-west). He also takes other tribal centres including Eordaia (home to the tribe that had been defeated by Caranus and the tribal Macedonians in the early eighth century), Bottiaea (home to a possibly aboriginal people), Pieria (immediately south of Aigai and bordered on its own south by Pelasgiotis which is either home to a population of Pelasgians or remembers their former existence there in its name), Mygdonia (home to Thracians), and Almopia (home to the Almops).
454 - 448 BC
Alcetas II
Son. An alcoholic, he was killed by Archelaus, his nephew.
454 BC
The Macedonian kingdom formed by Alexander begins to disintegrate under his successors. The alcoholism of Alcetas, and the in-fighting between Perdiccas and Phillipus allows the Macedonian and other subject tribes regain autonomy. Perdiccas' subsequent reign sees him involved in the prelude to the Peloponnesian Wars, in which he frequently switches sides between Athens and Sparta in their growing conflict.
448 - 413 BC
Perdiccas II
Brother. Took the throne following the murder of his brother.
434 BC
Phillipus
Brother. Challenged Perdiccas for the throne.
429 BC
Against the backdrop of the Second Peloponnesian War, Perdiccas is opposed by Amyntas II, the son of either Phillipus or Menelaus. He seeks the support of Sitalces, king of the Odrysian Thracians, but Perdiccas mediates with Seuthes, the son of Sitalces to obtain peace between the Thracians and Macedonia. Amyntas is forced to wait for his accession.
413 - 399 BC
Archelaus I
Son of Perdiccas. Gained the throne by murdering all rivals.
413 - 412 BC
One of the first acts of Archelaus is to stabilise relations with Athens, supplying it with wood with which to build a new fleet after its disastrous defeat at Syracuse. He also stabilises the kingdom, improving its organisation and infrastructure by building strongholds and roads. By the time of his (possibly accidental) death during a hunt at the hands of Craterus, one of the royal pages, Macedonia is a significantly stronger kingdom.
399 BC
Craterus / Crateuas
Royal page who killed the king. Seized throne for 4 days.
399 - 396 BC
Orestes
Son of Archelaus.
399 - 396 BC
Aeropus II
Guardian of Orestes.
396 - 393 BC
Archelaus II
Brother of Orestes. Patron of arts & literature. Killed hunting.
393 - 392 BC
A period of confusion follows the unexpected death of Archelaus II. The subsequent kings rule for brief periods, with little information regarding them. The kingdom probably fractures under the strain of a virtual royal civil war.
393 BC
Amyntas II
Son of Phillipus or Menelaus, brother of Perdiccas.
393 BC
Pausanias
Son of Aeropus II. Assassinated by Amyntas III.
393 BC
Amyntas III
Son of Arrhidaeus. Driven out by the Illyrians.
393 BC
Amyntas III is driven out of the kingdom by the Illyrians who are assisting the pretender to the Macedonian throne, Argaeus. It takes the rightful king just a year to regain his throne, with support from the Thessalians.
393 - 392 BC
Argaeus II
Pretender. Probably returned in 359 BC.
392 - 370 BC
Amyntas III
Restored. Died of old age.
c.387 - 380 BC
During the first years of his reign Amyntas III creates a fully unified Macedonian state which heralds a period of greatness. Around this time he also establishes good relations with Cotys of the Thracian Odrysian kingdom which presages even closer relations under Philip II.
370 - 368 BC
Alexander II
Son. Assassinated by Ptolemy I.
368 - 360 BC
Perdiccas III
Brother. Forced to accept regent. Killed in battle by Illyrians.
368 - 365 BC
Ptolemy I Alorites / of Aloros
Brother-in-law and regent. Killed by Perdiccas III.
362 BC
Athens and Sparta, together with the Eleans and the Mantinaeans, are defeated by the Thebans at the Battle of Mantinea. The battle is fought on 4 July, with the Thebans being supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian League. The Spartan defeat paves the way for Macedonian supremacy later in the century.
360 - 359 BC
Amyntas IV
Infant son of Perdiccas III. Usurped by Philip II.
359 BC
As soon as Phillip II deposes his infant nephew and claims the throne for himself, the pretender, Argaeus, attempts to secure the throne with Athenian support. Philip manages to persuade the Athenians not to interfere. Argaeus gathers his supporters, along with some freelance Athenians, and attempts to capture the capital by force but is repulsed. While retreating back to his headquarters at Methone, he is ambushed by Philip and defeated. He either dies during the fighting or is executed afterwards.
359 BC
Argaeus (II?)
Probably the same as the Argaeus of 393 BC.
359 - 336 BC
Philip II
Brother of Perdiccas III. Assassinated.
359 BC
Philip makes an alliance with Cotys of the Thracian Odrysian kingdom. In the same year he marries Olympias, the niece of King Arybbas of Epirus. The union is partly to combine resources to ward off the dangerous Illyrian tribes to the north-west, but it also cements an alliance between the two kingdoms that helps to forge an empire.
Phillip II of Macedonia
With his conquest of Greece, Phillip II laid down the foundations for the Hellenic empire
352 - 343 BC
The new ruler of the Odrysian kingdom makes an enemy of Philip so he undertakes a successful expedition into Thrace, gaining ascendancy for a time. The Odrysian king subsequently throws off Macedonian control, so a second expedition in 343 BC gains Philip complete dominance by 341 BC.
338 - 337 BC
Philip defeats the Greek states at the Battle of Chaeronea and gains overlordship over all of Greece, includingAthensCorinth and Sparta. Athens and other city states join the Corinthian League (or Hellenic League) which is formed by Phillip to unify the military forces at his command so that he can pressure Persia.
336 BC
The invasion of Persia has only just begun when Philip is assassinated at his capital in October of the year. The court gathers for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander I of Epirus and Philip's daughter, and Philip is killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of his seven bodyguards. Pausanias tries to escape and is pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards, dying at their hands.
Great Kings of Macedonia
Thanks to foundations laid by his father, Phillip II, the Macedonians reached their greatest extent under Alexander the Great, becoming for a short time the greatest power in the world. Following Alexander's early death the kingdom broke up into several Hellenic sections. Alexander's immediate successors held no real power, being mere figureheads for the generals who really held control of Alexander's empire, and during the course of civil wars and negotiations for control of various sections, the territories were divided up into separate kingdoms which were firmly established by 305 BC.
336 - 323 BC
Alexander III the Great
Son. Born 356 BC to Philip II and Olympias of Epirus.
336 BC
The Thracians revolt against Macedonian rule so Alexander mounts a campaign which conquers two of their tribes, bringing capitulation from the rest.
334 - 319 BC
Antipater
Viceroy & regent of Macedonia during Alexander's conquests.
334 - 330 BC
Between 334-333 BC the various regions of Anatolia are taken from Persia, including Cappadocia, LyciaLydia, and Phrygia. Between 333-332 BC HarranJudah, and Phoenicia are captured, and between 332-330 BC Persiais conquered. It takes a further two years to subdue eastern areas around Bactria (330-328 BC).
The Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC
Alexander defeated the Persian king Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela in Mesopotamia in 331 BC
333 - 331 BC
While Alexander is campaigning in Asia, Sparta rebels against Macedonian hegemony in Greece with allies from Elis, along with most of Achaea and Arcadia. Antipater marches a large army south and defeats the rebellion after a desperate struggle.
326 BC
Alexander's army enters western India through the passes of the Hindu Kush, but the troops rebel against the prospect of more battles against another great army, that of Magadha, on the Ganges. Alexander is forced to retreat, abandoning his hopes of conquering India.
323 BC
Upon the death of Alexander his two successors are retained as figureheads while the empire is governed by Alexander's powerful generals. Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, is the first general to rule, carrying the title 'Regent of Macedonia', first with Meleager, head of the infantry officers, as his lieutenant, but alone after he has him murdered.
Control of the empire is divided up:
In the west it is made up of Ptolemy in Egypt and Libya; Laomedon in Syria and Phoenicia; Philotas in Cilicia; Peithon in Media; Antigonus in PhrygiaLycia and Pamphylia; Asander in Caria; Menander in Lydia; Lysimachus in Thrace; Leonnatus in Hellespontine Phrygia; Neoptolemus in Armenia. Macedon and the rest of Greece fall under the joint rule of Antipater and Craterus (Alexander's most able lieutenant), while Alexander's secretary, Eumenes of Cardia, gains Cappadocia, Mysia, and Paphlagonia.
In the east, Alexander's arrangements remain largely intact: Taxiles and Porus rule over their Indo-Greekkingdoms, namely Taxila and Paurava; Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes rules Indo-Greek Gandhara; Sibyrtius rules Indo-Greek Arachosia and Gedrosia; Stasanor rules Indo-Greek Aria and Drangiana and then later Bactria; Philip rules Bactria and Sogdiana; in former Persia, Phrataphernes rules Parthia and Hyrcania; Peucestas governs Persis; Tlepolemus governs Carmania; Atropates governs northern Media; Archon rules Babylonia; and Arcesilas rules northern Mesopotamia.
323 - 317 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Son of Philip II. Feeble-minded. Titular king.
323 - 310 BC
Alexander IV
Son of Alexander and Roxana. Titular king.
323 - 321 BC
Perdiccas
Regent of Macedonia.
322 - 320 BC
The First War of the Diadochi (the successors - the generals of Alexander's army) sees civil war break out between the generals, and Perdiccas is murdered by his own generals during an invasion of Egypt. Philip III agrees terms with the murdering generals and appoints them as regents.
320 BC
Peithon and Arrhidaeus
Regents of Macedonia.
320 BC
A new agreement with Antipater makes him regent of the empire instead and commander of the European section. Antigonus remains in charge of PhrygiaLycia, and Pamphylia, to which is added Lycaonia, Syria andCanaan, making him commander of the Asian section. Ptolemy retains Egypt, Lysimachus retains Thrace, while the three murderers of Perdiccas - Seleucus, Peithon, and Antigenes - are given the former Persian provinces ofBabyloniaMedia, and Susiana respectively. Arrhidaeus, the former regent, receives Hellespontine Phrygia.
320 - 319 BC
Antipater
Restored as regent of Macedonia.
319 - 317 BC
Polyperchon
Regent of Macedonia. Deposed in the Second Diadochian War.
319 - 315 BC
The death of Antipater leads to the Second War of the Diadochi. He had passed over his son, Cassander, in favour of Polyperchon as his successor (possibly to avoid claims of dynasticism) but the two rivals go to war. Polyperchon allies himself to Eumenes (Alexander's secretary, former satrap of Cappadocia, Mysia, andPaphlagonia), but is driven from Macedonia by Cassander, and flees to Epirus with the infant Alexander IV and his mother Roxana.
Philip III is killed by his stepmother, Olympias, in 317 BC who is herself killed by Cassander the following year. Cassander also captures Alexander IV and Roxana and installs a governor in Athens, subsuming its democratic system. Eumenes is defeated in Asia and murdered by his own troops. The result is that Cassander controls the European territories (including Macedonia), while the Empire of Antigonus controls those in Asia (Asia Minor, centred on Phrygia and extending as far as Susiana). Polyperchon remains in control of part of the Peloponnese.
317 - 306 BC
Cassander
Regent of Macedonia. Son of Antipater. Claimed crown (305 BC).
314 - 311 BC
The Third War of the Diadochi results because the Empire of Antigonus has grown too powerful in the eyes of the other generals so Antigonus is attacked by Ptolemy (Egypt), Lysimachus (Thrace), Cassander (Macedonia), and Seleucus (Babylonia). The latter secures Babylon itself and the others conclude peace terms with Antigonus in 311 BC.
Antigonus continues to fight Seleucus for Babylon but he is defeated in 309 BC and withdraws. At around the same time, Cassander murders the fourteen year-old Alexander IV and his mother, Roxana, ending the Argead line of Macedonians.
308 - 301 BC
The Fourth War of the Diadochi soon breaks out. In 306 BC Antigonus proclaims himself king, so the following year the other generals do the same in their domains. Polyperchon, otherwise quiet in his stronghold in the Peloponnese, dies in 303 BC and Cassander claims his territory. The war ends in the death of Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC.
Battle of Ipsus
The Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC ended the Wars of the Diadochi
Lysimachus and Seleucus divide Antigonus' Asian territories between them, with Lysimachus receiving western Asia Minor (the Lysimachian empire, including Pergamum), and Seleucus the rest (the Seleucidire, includingSusaniaBabyloniaBactria, and the Indo-Greek provinces), except Cilicia and Lycia, which go to Cassander's brother, Pleistarchus, and Pontus, which becomes independent, and Phrygia itself, which apparently remains with or is reclaimed by Antigonus' son. Ptolemy remains secure in Hellenic EgyptLibya, and Palestine.
Antipatrid Kings of Macedonia
305 - 277 BC
During the lifetime of Alexander the Great, while he was carving out his great Greek empire, Antipater served as his regent back home in Macedonia. Following Alexander's death, Antipater continued to act as regent for the king's brother and son. He also passed over his own son, Cassander, for the role of regent in favour of Polyperchon, so Cassander went to war against this general to assert his own claim to the Macedonian regency. He drove his rival out of Macedonia and captured Alexander's son and wife, putting him in the powerful position of controlling Alexander's European territories apart from the Peloponnese by 315 BC.
The remaining wars between Alexander's generals did not change the ambitious Cassander's position in Greece, so he remained regent until he killed Alexander's son and wife in 309 BC (he had already killed Alexander's mother, Olympias, in 310 BC and had married Alexander's half-sister, Thessalonica, to secure his right to succeed the Argeads). From that point he was king of Macedonia in all but name, although he only proclaimed himself as such in 305 BC after Antigonus (of Phrygia) had assumed the same title the year previously, forcing all the other surviving generals to copy him. Cassander was now undisputable (although not undisputed) king of Macedon, founding a new dynasty.
305 - 297 BC
Cassander
Regent (317-306 BC). Proclaimed himself king of Macedonia.
297 BC
Cassander dies of dropsy, and his son, Philip, follows him due to natural causes less than a year later. The new dynasty is already in trouble, as Cassander's other two sons are involved in a dynastic dispute, meanwhile having to fend off Demetrius of the Antigonids.
297 BC
Philip IV
Son.
297 - 294 BC
Antipater II Etesias
Brother. Ousted Alexander. Overthrown by Demetrius (to 279).
297 - 294 BC
Alexander V
Brother. Assassinated by Demetrius of the Antigonids.
294 BC
Alexander is ousted by Antipater, and turns to Demetrius of the Antigonids for help. The Antigonid king ousts Antipater, and subsequently has Alexander assassinated. Demetrius now rules Macedonia, albeit with various strong rivals ranged against him.
294 - 288 BC
Demetrius I Poliorcetes
Antigonid king (306-285 BC).
288 BC
The position of Demetrius as king is continually threatened, and eventually the combined forces of Pyrrhus (ofEpirus), Ptolemy (of Egypt) and Lysimachus (of Thrace), assisted by the disaffected among his own subjects, oblige him to leave Macedonia in 288 BC. He passes into Asia and attacks Lysimachus' provinces but famine and plague destroys large numbers of his forces and he is abandoned by his troops on the field of battle, surrendering to Seleucus (of Syria and Babylonia). Lysimachus and Pyrrhus share Macedonia between them, but soon begin to fight, and Pyrrhus is ejected.
Lysimachian coin
This silver tetradrachm was issued by Lysimachus, and shows the deified head of Alexander the Great on the obverse, with the goddess Athena on the reverse
288 - 281 BC
Lysimachus
King of Thrace. Killed by the Seleucids.
288 - 285 BC
Pyrrhus
King of Epirus.
281 BC
Ptolemy II is the eldest son of Ptolemy of Egypt (it had been his younger brother who had ascended the Egyptian throne as Ptolemy II in 285 BC), and stays at the court of Lysimachus until the king is killed by Seleucus. Ptolemy agrees an alliance with Pyrrhus of Epirus and marries Lysimachus' widow, Arsinoë, to gain the throne. Then he kills Arsinoë's two sons for conspiracy against him and Arsinoë flees to Egypt to seek protection from her brother-in-law.
281 - 279 BC
Ptolemy II Ceraunus
Ruler of the Lysimachian empire.
279 BC
Despite ruling both the Lysimachian empire and Macedonia, and having his main rival, the Antigonid King Antigonus II Gonatas bottled up in his own capital, Ptolemy is killed during an invasion of Greece by the hordes of the Galatian Celts. The kingdom is plunged into anarchy as the Celts invade further into Greece, and only the Aetolians seem to be able to take the lead in defending Greek territory.
279 BC
Meleager
Brother. Deposed by his troops after two months.
279 BC
Antipater II Etesias
Son of Cassander. Restored. Ousted by Sosthenes.
279 BC
Macedonia is weakened by the reigns of four short-lived kings. Meleager is forced to step down by his own troops after just two months, and his replacement, the returning Antipater II, governs for just forty-five days before being deposed by Sosthenes, a possible former officer in the army of the Lysimachian empire. Antipater remains a threat until he is defeated by the Antigonid King Antigonus II Gonatas (probably by 277 BC). He flees to his relatives in Egypt where he lives out the remainder of his life.
279 - 277 BC
Sosthenes
Cousin? Army commander, not made king. Killed.
279 - 277 BC
Sosthenes is elected king by the Macedonian army. His subsequent assumption of the title of king is doubted, with it seeming more likely that he remains strategos (military general). Apart from facing continual rivalry fromAntigonid King Antigonus II Gonatas, during his short period in command Greece is still suffering from the invasion by Galatian Celts. They are defeated by a force led by the Aetolians at Thermopylae and Delphi in 278 BC, and then suffer a crushing defeat at the hands of Antigonus II in 277 BC. They retreat from Greece and pass through Thrace to enter into Asia Minor. The fate of Sosthenes is uncertain, but the vacant throne is soon claimed by Antigonus II.
Antigonid Kings of Macedonia
277 - 148 BC
Antigonus II of the Antigonids was originally based in Phrygia, where his grandfather, the one-eyed Antigonus, had created an empire out of the former conquests of Alexander the Great. Since then three generations of Antigonids had constantly been at war with the other generals of the Greek empire as each of them jostled for superiority. Antigonus II defeated an army of invading Galatian Celts in 277 BC at a time when the Macedonian throne was weakened by continual changes of occupier, and by the Galatian invasion itself.
Antigonus had already outlasted most of his rivals in Macedonia and the Lysimachian empire, and was now able to claim the vacant Macedonian throne, founding a new ruling house in Macedonia and Thrace combined that would last until Roman occupation ended independent Greek rule. The fact that he was the grandson of Antipater and the nephew of Cassander helped to reconcile most other Greek nobles to his rule.
277 - 274 BC
Antigonus II Gonatas (Antikini)
Son of Demetrius of the Antigonids.
274 BC
Just three years after claiming the Macedonian throne and uniting Thrace to it, Antigonus is attacked and easily defeated by Pyrrhus of Epirus, the former ally of Lysimachus. The Epirote king takes Macedonia for himself and rules it for the last two years of his life.
274 - 272 BC
Pyrrhus
Restored. King of Epirus.
273 BC
The Celts invade again, destroying the Thracian kingdom and forcing the aristocracy to escape to the Greek colonies bordering the Black Sea, which include Pontus. The kingdom of Galatia is created in Anatolia by the victorious Celts.
272 BC
Pyrrhus goes to war against Antigonus for his lack of support during the war against Rome, but finds himself trapped inside the walls of Argos with Antigonus surrounding him with superior forces. Trying to extricate himself, his unit of elephants is thrown into confusion and causes further chaos in which Pyrrhus is struck by a tile thrown by an old woman. Zopyrus, one of Antigonus' soldiers, kills the Epirote king. His entire veteran army goes over to the victorious Macedonian king, greatly increasing his power.
272 - 239 BC
Antigonus II Gonatas
Restored following the death of Pyrrhus.
267 - 261 BC
The Chremonidean War is fought between a coalition of Greek city states led by Athens and Sparta who are fighting for the restoration of their independence from Macedonian influence. They are aided by the PtolemaicEgyptians who are naturally threatened not only by Antigonus' apparently peaceful rule of Greece, but by his friendship with the Seleucid empire. He temporarily loses control of most of the Greek city states to the south but, by 263 BC, has worn down both Athens and Sparta. Order and prosperity are restored in Greece.
Antigonus II Gonatas Coin
A coin showing the face of Macedonian king, Antigonus II Gonatas
261 - 256 BC
The interference by Ptolemy of Egypt continues, triggering the Second Syrian War. Macedonia and Antiochus II of the Seleucid empire team up to combine their attacks. Egypt loses ground in Anatolia and Phoenicia, and is forced to cede lands which include its ally, the city of Miletus.
239 - 229 BC
Demetrius II Aetolicus
Son. May have been co-ruler from 257/256 BC.
235 BC
Determined to rule themselves rather than remain under the rule of kings, the people of Epirus form a republic called the Epirote League. Their former royal family are exterminated between 235 and about 233 BC, perhaps because their alliance with Macedonia is unpopular. It certainly serves to gravely weaken Macedonia. However, during his reign, Demetrius is able to extend the kingdom by taking Euboea, Magnesia, and Thessaly and its surrounding territory, although not Dolopia and perhaps also Peparethos and Phthiotic Achaia.
229 BC
Just a year after losing control of Pergamum, Demetrius dies shortly after a disastrous battle against the Dardanii on the kingdom's northern border. His son, Philip, is an infant, so his cousin is offered the throne as his guardian. He rescues the kingdom from collapse, and defeats the Dardanii, so he is persuaded to marry the widowed queen and take the throne for himself. It seems, however, that he is unable to keep the recently conquered Thessaly (and Phthia) within the kingdom.
229 - 221 BC
Antigonus III Doson
Cousin. Son of Demetrius the Fair of Cyrene.
222 BC
Despite securing the throne for himself, Antigonus III appears to view himself as a caretaker king for Philip V. He never tries to secure his own sons as heirs to the throne. Instead, he builds on his cousin's gains by re-establishing Macedonian power and dominance across the region, and in this year he overwhelms the Spartansat the Battle of Sellasia, ending any serious attempt by the Spartans to oppose Macedonian superiority in Greece.
221 BC
Although Greece is at peace, the Illyrians are a constant threat to the northern borders. They invade Macedonia and Antigonus has to rush north to defeat them in battle. He suffers a ruptured artery during the battle and dies.
221 - 179 BC
Philip V
Son of Demetrius II.
215 - 205 BC
During the Second Punic War, Philip allies himself to Carthage. To avoid a possible reinforcement of Hannibal by Macedonia, Rome dispatches a force to tie down the Macedonians in the First Macedonian War. The war ends indecisively in 205 BC with the Treaty of Phoenicia. Even though it is only a minor conflict, it opens the way for later Roman military intervention in Greece.
214 BC
The Thracians eject the Celts of the kingdom of Galatia from Greece and restore Thracian rule.
202 BC
Philip conquers the kingdom of Thrace and permanently appends it to Macedonia. It remains part of Macedonian territory until the final end of the kingdom.
200 - 196 BC
The Second Macedonian War is triggered by apparently falsified claims by Pergamum and Rhodes of a secret treaty between Macedonia and the Seleucid empire. Rome launches an attack and after a spell of indecisive conflict, Philip is defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC, while his general, Androsthenes, is defeated near Corinth. The Macedonian army is drastically reduced in size as a result of the defeat, and Philip's standing as an important Greek king is greatly diminished.
Philip V of Macedonia
This silver tetradrachm bears the head of Philip V of Macedonia
179 BC
Philip invites in a massive contingent of warriors from the tribe of the Bastarnae which resides to the north of the Danube. Apparently they are long-time allies of his and are needed to help him defeat the aggressive Dardanii, raiding Thraco-Illyrians who are located along his northern border and whom his diminished army is unable to defeat alone. However, the aged king dies before his allies can arrive. Now unsupported and without supplies, the Bastarnae pillage the land, although they are checked by Thracians who are on the defensive. About half their number return home while the rest press on for Macedonia where they are quartered by Perseus, who uses them in an attack on the Dardanii. The Bastarnae are ultimately defeated and return homewards. While crossing the frozen Danube on foot, the ice gives way and most of their number are drowned.
179 - 167 BC
Perseus
Son. Persuaded Philip to kill his pro-Roman brother, Demetrius.
171 - 168 BC
The use of the Bastarnae to attack Macedonia's enemies has forewarned Rome of Perseus' intention to break the restrictions laid on his father following Macedonia's defeat in 197-196 BC. Now Macedonia and Rome renew the fighting in the Third Macedonian War. Perseus enjoys some initial success but is forced to surrender following defeat at the First Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 BC. He is taken prisoner and transported to Rome by the victorious Roman general, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, along with his half-brother, Philippus, and his infant son, Alexander.
168 - 150 BC
Roman rule of Macedonia and Thrace follows the defeat of Perseus. The Antigonids are removed from power and the kingdom is dismantled and replaced by four republics.
Roman Governors of Macedonia & Thrace
168 BC - AD 395
The rule of Macedonia and Thrace by the Roman republic followed the defeat of Perseus, the last of the native Macedonian kings. All around the eastern Mediterranean, the states that had been created by the Macedonian empire were falling to Rome, as was Greece itself, and the loss of Macedonia was a great blow for Greek freedom. Following their defeat at the First Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 BC, the Antigonids were immediately removed from power and the kingdom was dismantled and replaced by four republics.
Information on Roman governors seems to be very sparse, and multiple rebellions and uprisings occurred in Macedonia, but more especially in Thrace, which was still very tribal and prone to violent actions. The situation there calmed down in the first century AD following the near destruction of the Bessoi, one of Thrace's most warlike tribes, but incursions by tribes from the Danube area continued to be a serious problem.
168 - 166 BC
Gaius Publilius
Roman governor.
fl c.150 BC
Lucius Fulcinius
Roman governor.
150 BC
Andriscus of Macedon, ruler of Adramyttium in Aeolis, claims to be the son of Perseus and breaks the Romanhold over the former kingdom when he leads a popular uprising in the Fourth Macedonian War.
Roman forum in Stobi
The Roman Forum at modern Stobi is now in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
149 - 148 BC
Andriscus / Philip VI
Son of Perseus? Defeated by Rome.
149 - 148 BC
Andriscus invades Macedonia from Thrace in 149 BC and defeats an army under the Roman praetor, Publius Juventius. Then he proclaims himself King Philip VI of Macedonia. In the following year, his popular uprising is put down by the legions at the Second Battle of Pydna, and they establish a permanent residence in Greece. The Achaean League of Greek states rises up against this presence and is swiftly destroyed. Rome also destroysCorinth as an object lesson and annexes Greece, including Macedonia and Thrace.
146 BC
The four client republics are dissolved and Macedonia officially becomes the Roman province of Macedonia, which also includes Epirus, Thessaly, and areas of Illyria, Paeonia, and Thrace.
146? - ? BC
Gnaeus Egnatius
Roman proconsul. Built the Via Egnatia across Greece.
? - 119 BC
?
Roman governor. Name unknown. Killed.
119 BC
The Scordisci and Maedi invade Macedonia, defeating and killing the governor.
110 - 107 BC
Marcus Minucius Rufus?
Roman governor? Crushed the Bessoi.
c.94? - c.92? BC
Lucius Julius Caesar III
Roman governor. Killed in the Roman Civil War in 87 BC.
c.92 - ? BC
Sentius
Roman governor.
78 - 76 BC
Appius Claudius Pulcher
Roman governor. Consul of Rome in 79 BC.
76 - 72? BC
Gaius Scribonius Curio
Roman governor. Consul of Rome in 76 BC. Died 53 BC.
72 BC
Gaius Scribonius Curio occupies the lands of the Dardanians, and expands the province as far north as the Danube.
c.70 - 65 BC
Aesillas
Roman governor.
c.63 - 60 BC
Gaius Antonius Hybrida
Roman governor.
62 - 61 BC
In response to Rome's incursions into the Danube delta, which are seen as a major threat by all the peoples of the region, King Burebista of the Getae has united all of the Getae into a single kingdom. He has also established overlordship of the neighbouring Bastarnae and Sarmatians. Burebista's powerful forces raid regularly into Roman-held territory. In 62 BC the Greek cities rebel against Roman rule, and in the following year the Bastarnae manage to isolate the Roman infantry of the inept proconsul of Macedonia, Gaius Antonius (uncle to Mark Antony). The entire force is massacred. The Roman hold over the region collapses.
57 - 55 BC
Lucius Calpurnius Piso
Roman governor. His son returned in 11 BC to quell uprising.
55 BC
Rabokentus of the Bessoi is mentioned by Cicero in relation to action that is taken by Lucius Calpurnius Piso, to suppress unrest in the province. Rabokentus is murdered by Piso after the latter accepts a bribe from Kotys II of the Astean, a typical example of Roman officials playing off the native leaders against one another.
42 BC
During his reign, Raskouporis of Sapes has already granted assistance to both Pompey and Caesar during their struggle for power. Now, immediately after the murder of Julius Caesar, he supports the Roman republican faction under Brutus and Cassius against Mark Antony and Octavian. In return, Brutus and Cassius lead campaigns against the tribal Bessoi in the highlands in defence of their allies.
fl 28 BC
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Roman governor.
28 BC
Dio Cassius Cocceianus reports that Marcus Licinius Crassus undertakes a punitive expedition against the Thracians (in what is now southern Bulgaria), mainly against the Bessoi. The ancient sanctuary of Dionysos, described by Herodotus, is captured, taken away from the Bessoi priests and priestesses, and delivered to theAstean, who are Roman allies. The Bessoi do not accept the settling of these Odrysian Thracians in their ancient sanctuary and revolt. This first uprising is quickly suppressed.
19 BC
King Kotys III of Sapes is killed by Raskouporis II. Roimitalkes II, the son of the victorious king is given the lands to the north of the Haemus in Thrace while Kotys' son, Roimitalkes III gets the lands to the south, both ruling under the guardianship of the Roman governor of Macedonia.
15 - 11 BC
Vologeses is a Dionysian priest (and possible king) who leads his fellow mountain Bessoi in one of the most prolonged uprisings against the Romans. Their initial aim is to free and re-conquer the sanctuary of Dionysos. Other Thracians join the uprising, and it quickly grows into a storm. Dio Cassius relates that a number of regions in Thrace are ravaged and the Odrysians of Astean are persecuted by the revolting Bessoi. Raskouporis II of Astean is killed and his relative, Roimitalkes I of Sapes, is forced to seek protection from the Romans. To suppress the uprising, the Romans receive help from Pamphylia, and under Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, son of former Governor Lucius Calpurnius Piso, they manage to quell the revolting Bessoi by drowning the country in blood and fire.
AD 9
With the formation of the new Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Moesia and Thrace, the province of Macedonia acquires the physical dimensions that it retains throughout the empire period. It also gains safety and security at last, with the Thracian tribes fully pacified and external threats kept away by the buffer provinces around it.
Roman Stobi
The Roman city of Stobi (now in the Former Republic of Macedonia) was a sophisticated and attractive Roman city in Macedonia
32 - ?
Publius Memmius Regulus
Roman praefect of Macedonia.
114/115
Publius Iuventius Celsus
Roman praefect of Thrace.
267/268 - 269
The Peucini Bastarnae are specifically mentioned in the invasion across the Roman frontier. Part of the barbarian coalition which includes Goths and Heruli, they use their knowledge of boat building from several centuries of living on the Black Sea coast and in the Danube estuary to help build a fleet in the estuary of the River Tyras (now the Dnieper). The force of which they are part sails along the coast to Tomis in Moesia Inferior. They attack the town but are unable to take it. Sailing on, they are frustrated twice more, at Marcianopolis and Thessalonica in Macedonia. Athens is also attacked, captured, and plundered by the Heruli (in 267-268). Finally, they move into Thrace where they are crushed by Emperor Claudius II at Naissus in 269.
c.285 - 318
Following reforms by Roman Emperor Diocletian at the end of the third century, Epirus Vetus is removed from the province of Macedonia. In the less well-recorded fourth century, Macedonia itself is divided into Macedonia Prima (the south) and Macedonia Salutaris (the north). In 318 they form part of the diocese of Macedonia, one of three dioceses which is included in the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum.
395
Greece becomes the central segment of the Eastern Roman empire. It remains so until the Byzantine empire's final conquest in 1453 by the Ottoman empire. Only in the twentieth century does an independent Greek kingdom rise out of two millennia of Turkish occupation or Romanised empire.

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